Lucan Biddulph is an incorporated township in the Canadian province of Ontario. It was formed on January 1, 1999, by amalgamating the Village of Lucan with Biddulph Township. The township had a population of 4,338 people in the Canada 2011 Census, and covers an area of 168.76 km² of land within Middlesex County.The land in the area is almost entirely agricultural, with relatively fertile soils used for crops (grains, tobacco) and livestock. Many of the township's residents are employed in the same industries.Comprising 40,000 acres (160 km²) of Middlesex County, the Township of Biddulph was surveyed by agents of the Canada Company in 1830. The township took its name from John Biddulph, one of the earliest directors of the Canada Company.Until its incorporation in 1872, the village of Lucan had been known as Marystown, named in tribute to the wife of John McDonald, who was the original land surveyor of the area. When a duplicate Marystown was found to have already registered with the Post Office the name Lucan was put forth and accepted by the postal authorities. Lucan was named in tribute to Lord Lucan, a prominent landowner in Ireland.Despite being more than 500 km (310 mi) to the North, in 1829, the area became a refuge for a group of free slaves from Cincinnati, Ohio who were under threat of being enslaved again, as a result of the Black Codes in Ohio. This group of roughly 200 disenfranchised Blacks were granted refuge and land by the Canada Company and duly set up a colony named Wilberforce. This was one of the earliest, if not the earliest, slave refuge colony in Upper Canada and existed before emancipation. The flight of Blacks northward into Canada beginning around this time was part of the Underground Railroad.