Montcalm is a rural municipality in the province of Manitoba in Western Canada. It is located in the southern part of the province, along its border with the state of North Dakota in the United States. The 2006 Census reported a population of 1,317 persons, a decrease from the 1,400 reported in the 2001 Census. The town of Emerson lies at the southeast corner of the municipality, although it is an administratively separate entity. The Roseau River Anishinabe First Nation lies between Montcalm R.M. and the Rural Municipality of Franklin to the east.According to Statistics Canada, the rural municipality has an area of 469.41 km² (181.24 sq mi). The administratively separate town of Emerson lies at its southeast corner, and also borders the Rural Municipality of Franklin, as well as both North Dakota and Minnesota in the United States.